HUMAN MICROBIOME THE ROLE OF MICROBES IN HUMAN HEALTH PDF



Human Microbiome The Role Of Microbes In Human Health Pdf

The Human Microbiome Project SpringerLink. The human microbiome is all of the genetic material found within microbes, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites that exist within and on the human body., Human Microbiome Project Human Nutrition Health And Nutrition Health Heal Brain Health Gut Brain Endocrine System Microorganisms Microbiology Forward Top 10 Ways Your Body is Disgusting - 100 trillion bacteria live in your body..

Human Microbiome GeneEd - Genetics Education Discovery

The Human Metagenome Project – Recommendations from the. The human genome has been referred to as the blueprint of human biology. In this review we consider an essential but largely ignored overlay to that blueprint, the human microbiome, which is composed of those microbes that live in and on our bodies., Some use “microbiome” to mean all the microbes in a community. We and others use it to mean the full collection of genes of all the microbes in a community. The human microbiome (all of our microbes’ genes) can be considered a counterpart to the human genome (all ….

The microbiome is comprised of microorganisms that live in and on us and contribute to human health and disease. Credit: Darryl Leja, NHGRI Credit: Darryl Leja, NHGRI Humans are superorganisms, made up of both human and microbial cells. Evidence is building that this resident community of microbes, called the microbiome, plays a major role in health and disease. When the normal composition of the microbiome is thrown off balance, researchers say, the human host can get into serious trouble—especially because the 5 million to 8 million different microbial genes in our bodies vastly outnumber the 20,000 or so human genes

Humans are colonized by trillions of microorganisms that exert a profound influence on health and disease. The unique chemical capabilities of the human microbiome play an important role in this process, but the microbial pathways and enzymes involved in … Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health. This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their physical environment. Forests, lakes, and caves are ecosystems. Each contains a unique mix of living components, like plants

microbes in the human microbiome could lead to new therapies, perhaps treating a bacterial infection caused by a “bad” bacteria by growing more “good” bacteria. The HMP serves as a roadmap for discovering the role of the microbiome in health, nutrition, immunity, and disease. What questions remain? Here are some questions researchers are investigating: • How is a specific microbiome Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem

Research conducted at Montana State University shows that microbes in the human gut play an important role in protecting against arsenic toxicity, a problem that affects an estimated 200 million people who are exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water. Some use “microbiome” to mean all the microbes in a community. We and others use it to mean the full collection of genes of all the microbes in a community. The human microbiome (all of our microbes’ genes) can be considered a counterpart to the human genome (all …

Human Microbiome is a new open access journal dedicated to research on the impact of the microbiome on human health and disease... Read more The innumerable microbes living in and on our bodies are known to affect human wellbeing, but our knowledge of their role is still at the very early stages of understanding. Scientists are just beginning to understand what roles bacteria play in human health. Some kinds of bacteria benefit us, like gut bacteria that help us digest food. Others harm us, like bacteria that cause disease. Many do not benefit or harm us at all. In fact, most species are either harmless or beneficial to humans. If bacteria are harmless, scientists call them commensal. If they are

The human microbiome project (HMP) was established in 2007 as another global consortium [3]. The HMP and the The HMP and the ‘Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (Meta-HiT) Consortium Europe’ aim at the sequencing of all microbes The collective genomes of these resident microorganisms is known as the human microbiome. The interactions between these microbes and their human host plays a crucial role in the health …

microbes in the human microbiome could lead to new therapies, perhaps treating a bacterial infection caused by a “bad” bacteria by growing more “good” bacteria. The HMP serves as a roadmap for discovering the role of the microbiome in health, nutrition, immunity, and disease. What questions remain? Here are some questions researchers are investigating: • How is a specific microbiome Humans are colonized by trillions of microorganisms that exert a profound influence on health and disease. The unique chemical capabilities of the human microbiome play an important role in this process, but the microbial pathways and enzymes involved in …

The human microbiota consists of the entire collection of microbes that live in and on the body. In fact, there are 10 times as many microbial inhabitants of the body than there are body cells. Summary. A great number of diverse microorganisms inhabit the human body and are collectively referred to as the human microbiome. Until recently, the role of the human microbiome in maintaining human health was not fully appreciated.

1 Human How Your Bodys Microbes Hold The Key To Health And

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

Top Questions (and Answers) About the Human Microbiome. Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This StepRead is based on an article provided by the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their environment. A forest is an example of an ecosystem. Every forest has a unique mix of living things, …, comprehensive characterization of the human microbiome and analyze its role in health and disease. 11 This effort resulted in the characterization of microbial communities in different body parts, e.g., oral, gut, skin, and vaginal microbiomes..

Human Microbiome Role in Health and Obesity Disabled World

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

Understanding the Human Microbiome — Balskus Lab. Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This StepRead is based on an article provided by the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their environment. A forest is an example of an ecosystem. Every forest has a unique mix of living things, … The human intestinal tract harbours a diverse and complex microbial community which plays a central role in human health. It has been estimated that our gut contains in the range of 1000 bacterial species and 100-fold more genes than are found in the human genome [ Ley et al . 2006a ; Qin et al . 2010 ]..

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf


A Clinician’s Primer on the Role of the Microbiome in Human Health and Disease Sahil Khanna, MBBS, MS, and Pritish K. Tosh, MD CME Activity Target Audience: The target audience for Mayo Clinic Proceedings is primar- Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem

The National Institutes of Health recently established the Human Microbiome Project to document the different populations of bacteria that colonize the human body, including areas of the head and neck, to explore how differences in colonizing bacterial flora impact human health. The microbiome is believed to play an important role in the development of asthma and different allergies especially in early life 12 . Insufficient exposure to microbes …

5/02/2013 · February 4th, 2012 - Curtis Huttenhower, assistant professor of computational biology and bioinformatics, talks about the Human Microbiome Project and the role that microbes… The human intestinal tract harbours a diverse and complex microbial community which plays a central role in human health. It has been estimated that our gut contains in the range of 1000 bacterial species and 100-fold more genes than are found in the human genome [ Ley et al . 2006a ; Qin et al . 2010 ].

The human microbiota consists of the entire collection of microbes that live in and on the body. In fact, there are 10 times as many microbial inhabitants of the body than there are body cells. Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This StepRead is based on an article provided by the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their environment. A forest is an example of an ecosystem. Every forest has a unique mix of living things, …

The human microbiome, the collection of trillions of microbes living in and on the human body, is not random, and scientists believe that it plays a role in many basic life processes. The human microbiome project (HMP) was established in 2007 as another global consortium [3]. The HMP and the The HMP and the ‘Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (Meta-HiT) Consortium Europe’ aim at the sequencing of all microbes

The Human Microbiome project (National Institute of Health, USA) has just been completed and information generated from this project was published on June 14, 2012 in Nature and PLoS journals. This project, which consists of a consortium of scientists from nearly 80 universities and scientific Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health by American Museum of Natural History This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their physical environment. …

Research into the microbiome—the indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) and the host environment that they inhabit—has changed clinicians’ ideas about microbes in human health and disease. Perhaps the most radical change is the realization that most of the microbes … The more you learn about the intricacies of the human microbiome, the better you can learn how to take care of it and optimize your health starting at the microbial level. Ready for some microbiome empowerment? We’ve pulled together a little microbiome Q&A to help you better understand this fascinating universe of microorganisms that can affect nearly every aspect of your daily health and

The millions of organisms that make up the human microbiome play an important role in both health and disease. Within the human body, different types of microbes occupy specific body sites and support the functions of these organs; for example, bacteria living in the gut aid in digestion. Summary. A great number of diverse microorganisms inhabit the human body and are collectively referred to as the human microbiome. Until recently, the role of the human microbiome in maintaining human health was not fully appreciated.

Research conducted at Montana State University shows that microbes in the human gut play an important role in protecting against arsenic toxicity, a problem that affects an estimated 200 million people who are exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water. Figure. A, Role of antibiotic pressure and its effect on the human microbiome in the development and spread of multidrug resistance (MDR). B, Strategies to harness the human microbiome for either preventing or shortening the duration of colonization or reducing the clonal expansion of MDR organisms.

Why the Gut Microbiome Is Crucial for Your Health

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

Human Microbiome Project Overview. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a research initiative sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. It aims to study the human body as if it were a superorganism and to establish the role, The human microbiome is the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body. These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses..

Human Microbiome The Role of Microbes in Human Health

The vital role of the microbiome in human health Safefood. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a research initiative sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. It aims to study the human body as if it were a superorganism and to establish the role, The microbiome is comprised of microorganisms that live in and on us and contribute to human health and disease. Credit: Darryl Leja, NHGRI Credit: Darryl Leja, NHGRI Humans are superorganisms, made up of both human and microbial cells..

The Human Microbiome project (National Institute of Health, USA) has just been completed and information generated from this project was published on June 14, 2012 in Nature and PLoS journals. This project, which consists of a consortium of scientists from nearly 80 universities and scientific comprehensive characterization of the human microbiome and analyze its role in health and disease. 11 This effort resulted in the characterization of microbial communities in different body parts, e.g., oral, gut, skin, and vaginal microbiomes.

The human microbiome, the collection of trillions of microbes living in and on the human body, is not random, and scientists believe that it plays a role in many basic life processes. Research into the microbiome—the indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) and the host environment that they inhabit—has changed clinicians’ ideas about microbes in human health and disease. Perhaps the most radical change is the realization that most of the microbes …

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a research initiative sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. It aims to study the human body as if it were a superorganism and to establish the role The human microbiota consists of the entire collection of microbes that live in and on the body. In fact, there are 10 times as many microbial inhabitants of the body than there are body cells.

The trillions of microbes living in the gut —the gut microbiota—play an important role in human biology and disease. While much has been done to explore its diversity, a full understanding of our microbiomes demands an evolutionary perspective. In this review, we compare microbiomes from human populations, placing them in the context of microbes from humanity ’snear and distant animal Evidence is building that this resident community of microbes, called the microbiome, plays a major role in health and disease. When the normal composition of the microbiome is thrown off balance, researchers say, the human host can get into serious trouble—especially because the 5 million to 8 million different microbial genes in our bodies vastly outnumber the 20,000 or so human genes

A Clinician’s Primer on the Role of the Microbiome in Human Health and Disease Sahil Khanna, MBBS, MS, and Pritish K. Tosh, MD CME Activity Target Audience: The target audience for Mayo Clinic Proceedings is primar- Research conducted at Montana State University shows that microbes in the human gut play an important role in protecting against arsenic toxicity, a problem that affects an estimated 200 million people who are exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water.

Evidence is building that this resident community of microbes, called the microbiome, plays a major role in health and disease. When the normal composition of the microbiome is thrown off balance, researchers say, the human host can get into serious trouble—especially because the 5 million to 8 million different microbial genes in our bodies vastly outnumber the 20,000 or so human genes The vital role of the microbiome in human health abandoning hygiene is not the way to a healthy microbiome Colin Hill APC Microbiome Institute University College Cork

Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health by American Museum of Natural History This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their physical environment. … Emerging evidence that the gut microbiota may contribute in important ways to human health and disease has led us and others to hypothesize that both symbiotic and pathological relationships between gut microbes and their host may be key contributors to obesity and the metabolic complications of obesity. Our "Thrifty Microbiome Hypothesis" poses that gut microbiota play a key role in human

The sheer microbial abundance suggests that the human body is a collection of human and microbial cells and their genes resulting in a blend of human and microbial traits. The microbiome is essential for maintenance of human life. The microbes that live in and on us are mostly beneficial colonizers and have many important functions such as assisting in digestion, regulating immune system Figure. A, Role of antibiotic pressure and its effect on the human microbiome in the development and spread of multidrug resistance (MDR). B, Strategies to harness the human microbiome for either preventing or shortening the duration of colonization or reducing the clonal expansion of MDR organisms.

The human microbiome, the collection of trillions of microbes living in and on the human body, is not random, and scientists believe that it plays a role in many basic life processes. The sheer microbial abundance suggests that the human body is a collection of human and microbial cells and their genes resulting in a blend of human and microbial traits. The microbiome is essential for maintenance of human life. The microbes that live in and on us are mostly beneficial colonizers and have many important functions such as assisting in digestion, regulating immune system

Download 1 human how your bodys microbes hold the key to health and happiness in pdf or read 1 human how your bodys microbes hold the key to health and happiness in pdf online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. microbes in the human microbiome could lead to new therapies, perhaps treating a bacterial infection caused by a “bad” bacteria by growing more “good” bacteria. The HMP serves as a roadmap for discovering the role of the microbiome in health, nutrition, immunity, and disease. What questions remain? Here are some questions researchers are investigating: • How is a specific microbiome

The human genome has been referred to as the blueprint of human biology. In this review we consider an essential but largely ignored overlay to that blueprint, the human microbiome, which is composed of those microbes that live in and on our bodies. Research conducted at Montana State University shows that microbes in the human gut play an important role in protecting against arsenic toxicity, a problem that affects an estimated 200 million people who are exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water.

Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This StepRead is based on an article provided by the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their environment. A forest is an example of an ecosystem. Every forest has a unique mix of living things, … Scientists are just beginning to understand what roles bacteria play in human health. Some kinds of bacteria benefit us, like gut bacteria that help us digest food. Others harm us, like bacteria that cause disease. Many do not benefit or harm us at all. In fact, most species are either harmless or beneficial to humans. If bacteria are harmless, scientists call them commensal. If they are

Research into the microbiome—the indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) and the host environment that they inhabit—has changed clinicians’ ideas about microbes in human health and disease. Perhaps the most radical change is the realization that most of the microbes … The human microbiome is the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body. These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses.

The National Institutes of Health recently established the Human Microbiome Project to document the different populations of bacteria that colonize the human body, including areas of the head and neck, to explore how differences in colonizing bacterial flora impact human health. Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health. This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their physical environment. Forests, lakes, and caves are ecosystems. Each contains a unique mix of living components, like plants

A Clinician’s Primer on the Role of the Microbiome in Human Health and Disease Sahil Khanna, MBBS, MS, and Pritish K. Tosh, MD CME Activity Target Audience: The target audience for Mayo Clinic Proceedings is primar- Overview. T he Food Forum convened a public workshop on February 22-23, 2012, to explore current and emerging knowledge of the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the nutritional quality of the food supply.

Functional profiling of the gut microbiome in disease-associated inflammation. The microbial residents of the human gut are a major factor in the development and lifelong maintenance of health. A Clinician’s Primer on the Role of the Microbiome in Human Health and Disease Sahil Khanna, MBBS, MS, and Pritish K. Tosh, MD CME Activity Target Audience: The target audience for Mayo Clinic Proceedings is primar-

The Human Microbiome Diet and Health

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

Human Microbiome Composition and Role in Inflammatory. The collective genomes of these resident microorganisms is known as the human microbiome. The interactions between these microbes and their human host plays a crucial role in the health …, The vital role of the microbiome in human health abandoning hygiene is not the way to a healthy microbiome Colin Hill APC Microbiome Institute University College Cork.

Human Microbiome and Microbiota ThoughtCo

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

The Human Microbiome Our Second Genome. The microbiome is believed to play an important role in the development of asthma and different allergies especially in early life 12 . Insufficient exposure to microbes … The NIH Common Fund Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was established in 2008, with the aim of characterizing the human microbiome and analysing its role in human health and disease. The HMP has developed metagenomic protocols for creating, processing and interpreting distinct types of high-throughput metagenomic data available to the scientific community (Human Microbiome Project ….

human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

  • The human microbiome Role in health and disease and its
  • The Human Microbiome Project SpringerLink

  • By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a The sheer microbial abundance suggests that the human body is a collection of human and microbial cells and their genes resulting in a blend of human and microbial traits. The microbiome is essential for maintenance of human life. The microbes that live in and on us are mostly beneficial colonizers and have many important functions such as assisting in digestion, regulating immune system

    The more you learn about the intricacies of the human microbiome, the better you can learn how to take care of it and optimize your health starting at the microbial level. Ready for some microbiome empowerment? We’ve pulled together a little microbiome Q&A to help you better understand this fascinating universe of microorganisms that can affect nearly every aspect of your daily health and The human microbiome is the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body. These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses.

    Human Microbiome Project Human Nutrition Health And Nutrition Health Heal Brain Health Gut Brain Endocrine System Microorganisms Microbiology Forward Top 10 Ways Your Body is Disgusting - 100 trillion bacteria live in your body. The collective genomes of these resident microorganisms is known as the human microbiome. The interactions between these microbes and their human host plays a crucial role in the health …

    play in health and disease and will lead to new and unexpected biological insights into human biology and human interactions with the environment. Firstly, the reference set will provide a detailed view of the diversity of intestinal The human intestinal tract harbours a diverse and complex microbial community which plays a central role in human health. It has been estimated that our gut contains in the range of 1000 bacterial species and 100-fold more genes than are found in the human genome [ Ley et al . 2006a ; Qin et al . 2010 ].

    The human intestinal tract harbours a diverse and complex microbial community which plays a central role in human health. It has been estimated that our gut contains in the range of 1000 bacterial species and 100-fold more genes than are found in the human genome [ Ley et al . 2006a ; Qin et al . 2010 ]. When we talk about the human microbiome, we often refer to the gut microbiome as the digestive tract houses the biggest number of microbes. However, other body sites also have their own microbiome – the mouth, genitals, skin, airways and of course the bladder .

    The NIH Common Fund Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was established in 2008, with the aim of characterizing the human microbiome and analysing its role in human health and disease. The HMP has developed metagenomic protocols for creating, processing and interpreting distinct types of high-throughput metagenomic data available to the scientific community (Human Microbiome Project … The microbiome is believed to play an important role in the development of asthma and different allergies especially in early life 12 . Insufficient exposure to microbes …

    The National Institutes of Health recently established the Human Microbiome Project to document the different populations of bacteria that colonize the human body, including areas of the head and neck, to explore how differences in colonizing bacterial flora impact human health. The vital role of the microbiome in human health abandoning hygiene is not the way to a healthy microbiome Colin Hill APC Microbiome Institute University College Cork

    Role of Human Microbiome in Health Accumulating evidence reveals that the gut microbiota plays a major role in promoting health, as a result of which it is often referred to as the “forgotten organ” (O'Hara and Shanahan, 2006 ). Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health by American Museum of Natural History This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their physical environment. …

    When we talk about the human microbiome, we often refer to the gut microbiome as the digestive tract houses the biggest number of microbes. However, other body sites also have their own microbiome – the mouth, genitals, skin, airways and of course the bladder . When we talk about the human microbiome, we often refer to the gut microbiome as the digestive tract houses the biggest number of microbes. However, other body sites also have their own microbiome – the mouth, genitals, skin, airways and of course the bladder .

    Functional profiling of the gut microbiome in disease-associated inflammation. The microbial residents of the human gut are a major factor in the development and lifelong maintenance of health. The National Institutes of Health recently established the Human Microbiome Project to document the different populations of bacteria that colonize the human body, including areas of the head and neck, to explore how differences in colonizing bacterial flora impact human health.

    Download 1 human how your bodys microbes hold the key to health and happiness in pdf or read 1 human how your bodys microbes hold the key to health and happiness in pdf online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. What's more, there are up to 1,000 species of bacteria in the human gut microbiome, and each of them plays a different role in your body. Most of them are extremely important for your health

    Functional profiling of the gut microbiome in disease-associated inflammation. The microbial residents of the human gut are a major factor in the development and lifelong maintenance of health. Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health This StepRead is based on an article provided by the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their environment. A forest is an example of an ecosystem. Every forest has a unique mix of living things, …

    By contrast, the metagenome of the human microbiome-the total DNA content of microbes inhabiting our bodies-is quite a bit more variable, with only a third of its constituent genes found in a The human microbiome is the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body. These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses.

    Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health Human Microbiome: The Role of Microbes in Human Health by American Museum of Natural History This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. You Are an Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living things that interact with each other and with the non-living things in their physical environment. … Evidence is building that this resident community of microbes, called the microbiome, plays a major role in health and disease. When the normal composition of the microbiome is thrown off balance, researchers say, the human host can get into serious trouble—especially because the 5 million to 8 million different microbial genes in our bodies vastly outnumber the 20,000 or so human genes

    The sheer microbial abundance suggests that the human body is a collection of human and microbial cells and their genes resulting in a blend of human and microbial traits. The microbiome is essential for maintenance of human life. The microbes that live in and on us are mostly beneficial colonizers and have many important functions such as assisting in digestion, regulating immune system The human microbiota consists of the entire collection of microbes that live in and on the body. In fact, there are 10 times as many microbial inhabitants of the body than there are body cells.

    The more you learn about the intricacies of the human microbiome, the better you can learn how to take care of it and optimize your health starting at the microbial level. Ready for some microbiome empowerment? We’ve pulled together a little microbiome Q&A to help you better understand this fascinating universe of microorganisms that can affect nearly every aspect of your daily health and Emerging evidence that the gut microbiota may contribute in important ways to human health and disease has led us and others to hypothesize that both symbiotic and pathological relationships between gut microbes and their host may be key contributors to obesity and the metabolic complications of obesity. Our "Thrifty Microbiome Hypothesis" poses that gut microbiota play a key role in human

    human microbiome the role of microbes in human health pdf

    The millions of organisms that make up the human microbiome play an important role in both health and disease. Within the human body, different types of microbes occupy specific body sites and support the functions of these organs; for example, bacteria living in the gut aid in digestion. The human intestinal tract harbours a diverse and complex microbial community which plays a central role in human health. It has been estimated that our gut contains in the range of 1000 bacterial species and 100-fold more genes than are found in the human genome [ Ley et al . 2006a ; Qin et al . 2010 ].