RESPIRATORY CENTER IN BRAIN TETBOO PDF



Respiratory Center In Brain Tetboo Pdf

Respiratory Center an overview ScienceDirect Topics. The Brainstem Respiratory Centers are a functionally-defined collection of anatomical loci within the brainstem that coordinate breathing through modulation of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles described in breathing biomechanics., This book explains the following topics: Cells, Membranes, and Transport, Integument, Bone Structure and Function, Articulations, Nervous System Basics, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, The Brain, Cranial Nerves, The Autonomic Nervous System, Muscles and Muscle Tissue, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure, Lymphatic System, Immune System, Respiratory.

Classification of acute respiratory disorders of all

Anatomy Of The Respiratory System Adrenal Fatigue Solution. A. Respiratory Reflex Centers Three reflex centers in brain that regulate breathing: 1. respiratory center: medulla establishes basic rhythm of breathing maintains automatic breathing rate ! 12-15 breaths/min 2. apneustic: pons 3. pneumotaxic center: pons the two centers in pons insure a smooth transition between inspiration and expiration helps maintains rhythmicity of breathing Human …, Scientists at Stanford University have now identified the neurons that connect the respiratory control center in the brain with the centre controlling state of mind. Deep breathing is widely.

Download as PDF. Respiratory and Pulmonary Physiology. Matthew D . Coleman MD, in Anesthesia Secrets (Fourth Edition), 2011. 25 Where is the respiration center located in the brain? The respiratory center is located bilaterally in the medulla and pons. Three major centers contribute to respiratory regulation. The dorsal respiratory center is mainly responsible for inspiration, the ventral 1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course GuideBook By Rapid Learning Center

Find out how the respiratory center collects information from all over the body and then helps regulate your breathing. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional The respiratory center is an area located in the pons and the medulla oblongata, the lowest portion of the brain stem. There are actually four separate areas that together comprise the respiratory

The rhythm of ventilation is also controlled by the "Respiratory Center" which is located largely in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem. This is part of the autonomic system and as such is not controlled voluntarily (one can increase or decrease breathing rate voluntarily, but that involves a different part of the brain). While resting, the respiratory center sends out action potentials Download as PDF. Respiratory and Pulmonary Physiology. Matthew D . Coleman MD, in Anesthesia Secrets (Fourth Edition), 2011. 25 Where is the respiration center located in the brain? The respiratory center is located bilaterally in the medulla and pons. Three major centers contribute to respiratory regulation. The dorsal respiratory center is mainly responsible for inspiration, the ventral

Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course GuideBook By Rapid Learning Center . 2 Human Anatomy and Physiology Core Concept Table of Contents Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Tutorial Series Summary Core Unit #1 – Levels of Organization In this core unit, you will acquire the concepts of organization in the human body at the cellular, tissue … The respiratory centers contain chemoreceptors that detect pH levels in the blood and send signals to the respiratory centers of the brain to adjust the ventilation rate to change acidity by increasing or decreasing the removal of carbon dioxide (since carbon dioxide is linked to …

Merkulova, N.A., Mechanisms of Integrative Combination of Suprabulbar Structures with the Respiratory Center, in Sovremennye problemy fiziologii vegetativnykh funktsii (Current Problems in the Physiology of Autonomic Functions), Samara, 2001, p. 8. The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System 1. Gathers information from both inside and outside the body - Sensory Function 2. Transmits information to the processing areas of the brain …

Related to respiratory center: Dorsal respiratory group, pontine respiratory center resВ·piВ·raВ·toВ·ry cenВ·ter the region in the medulla oblongata concerned with integrating afferent information to determine the signals to the respiratory muscles; the inspiratory and expiratory centers considered together. Anatomy Of The Respiratory System The respiratory system (also referred to as the ventilator system) is a complex biological system comprised of several organs that facilitate the inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in living organisms (or, in other words, breathing).

Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Severe Brain Injury

respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

Respiratory and cardiac abnormalities in brain-stem ischaemia.. The medullary respiratory center is the area of the brain that controls the parts of the body that help you inhale and exhale air. The reason why it..., The respiratory center is an area located in the pons and the medulla oblongata, the lowest portion of the brain stem. There are actually four separate areas that together comprise the respiratory.

Control of Respiration City University of New York

respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

The Brain Stem Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy Of The Respiratory System The respiratory system (also referred to as the ventilator system) is a complex biological system comprised of several organs that facilitate the inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in living organisms (or, in other words, breathing). Classification of acute respiratory disorders of all newborns in a tertiary care center Article in Journal of the National Medical Association 95(7):585-95 В· August 2003 with 56 Reads.

respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

  • Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course
  • The Brain Stem Boundless Anatomy and Physiology

  • This book explains the following topics: Cells, Membranes, and Transport, Integument, Bone Structure and Function, Articulations, Nervous System Basics, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, The Brain, Cranial Nerves, The Autonomic Nervous System, Muscles and Muscle Tissue, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure, Lymphatic System, Immune System, Respiratory At rest, the respiratory system performs its functions at a constant, rhythmic pace, as regulated by the respiratory centers of the brain. At this pace, ventilation provides sufficient oxygen to …

    This book explains the following topics: Cells, Membranes, and Transport, Integument, Bone Structure and Function, Articulations, Nervous System Basics, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, The Brain, Cranial Nerves, The Autonomic Nervous System, Muscles and Muscle Tissue, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure, Lymphatic System, Immune System, Respiratory Brain Function of the Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Mid-Brain, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Cerebellum, • cardiac center // adjusts rate and force of heart • vasomotor center // adjusts blood vessel diameter • respiratory centers // control rate and depth of breathing • reflex centers // coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, movements of tongue and head

    Download as PDF. Respiratory and Pulmonary Physiology. Matthew D . Coleman MD, in Anesthesia Secrets (Fourth Edition), 2011. 25 Where is the respiration center located in the brain? The respiratory center is located bilaterally in the medulla and pons. Three major centers contribute to respiratory regulation. The dorsal respiratory center is mainly responsible for inspiration, the ventral Merkulova, N.A., Mechanisms of Integrative Combination of Suprabulbar Structures with the Respiratory Center, in Sovremennye problemy fiziologii vegetativnykh funktsii (Current Problems in the Physiology of Autonomic Functions), Samara, 2001, p. 8.

    The rhythm of ventilation is also controlled by the "Respiratory Center" which is located largely in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem. This is part of the autonomic system and as such is not controlled voluntarily (one can increase or decrease breathing rate voluntarily, but that involves a different part of the brain). While resting, the respiratory center sends out action potentials 7 T HE H UMAN B ODY Students make a book about the human body that introduces them to a number of systems and organs in the body. The Body Book T he human body is …

    The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System 1. Gathers information from both inside and outside the body - Sensory Function 2. Transmits information to the processing areas of the brain … Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic

    ATOTW 205 The effects of anaesthesia on respiratory function, 15/11/2010 Page 3 of 8! In addition, anaesthetics have two further undesirable effects on ventilation; firstly after a period of mechanical ventilation the threshold at which the PaCO Respiratory Failure Chapter 20 210 and deeply we breathe. Depressed function of the respiratory center can con-tribute to respiratory failure. This condition is most often related to drugs, like

    1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course GuideBook By Rapid Learning Center This section contains free e-books and guides on anatomy, some of the resources in this section can be viewed online and some of them can be downloaded.

    Neural control of breathing Physiology Plus

    respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

    Respiratory center Wikipedia. The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem. The respiratory center is made up of three major respiratory groups of neurons , two in the medulla and one in the pons., Pulmonary complications are prevalent in the critically ill neurological population. Respiratory failure, pneumonia, acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), pulmonary edema, pulmonary contusions and pneumo/hemothorax, and pulmonary embolism are frequently encountered in the setting of severe brain injury..

    Peripheral and central control of breathing Questions and

    Brainstem Respiratory Centers Pathway Medicine. 1 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Short Answer Figure 1.1 Using Figure 1.1, identify the following:, Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course GuideBook By Rapid Learning Center . 2 Human Anatomy and Physiology Core Concept Table of Contents Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Tutorial Series Summary Core Unit #1 – Levels of Organization In this core unit, you will acquire the concepts of organization in the human body at the cellular, tissue ….

    The respiratory centers contain chemoreceptors that detect pH levels in the blood and send signals to the respiratory centers of the brain to adjust the ventilation rate to change acidity by increasing or decreasing the removal of carbon dioxide (since carbon dioxide is linked to … Anatomy Of The Respiratory System The respiratory system (also referred to as the ventilator system) is a complex biological system comprised of several organs that facilitate the inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in living organisms (or, in other words, breathing).

    1 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Short Answer Figure 1.1 Using Figure 1.1, identify the following: The second respiratory center of the brain is located within the pons, called the pontine respiratory group, and consists of the apneustic and pneumotaxic centers. The apneustic center is a double cluster of neuronal cell bodies that stimulate neurons in the DRG, controlling the depth of inspiration, particularly for deep breathing.

    Related to respiratory center: Dorsal respiratory group, pontine respiratory center resВ·piВ·raВ·toВ·ry cenВ·ter the region in the medulla oblongata concerned with integrating afferent information to determine the signals to the respiratory muscles; the inspiratory and expiratory centers considered together. Find out how the respiratory center collects information from all over the body and then helps regulate your breathing. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional

    RESPIRATORY FAILURE Respiratory failure is the terminal stage of respiratory insufficiency. embolism and thrombosis. pneumonia. 1. Paralytic: It occurs due to depression of respiratory center by anesthesia. 2. emphysema. Respiratory insufficiency is responsible for hypoxia which is the cause of deaths in animals.32 Textbook of Veterinary Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis 10. The respiratory Brain Function of the Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Mid-Brain, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Cerebellum, • cardiac center // adjusts rate and force of heart • vasomotor center // adjusts blood vessel diameter • respiratory centers // control rate and depth of breathing • reflex centers // coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, movements of tongue and head

    Related to respiratory center: Dorsal respiratory group, pontine respiratory center res·pi·ra·to·ry cen·ter the region in the medulla oblongata concerned with integrating afferent information to determine the signals to the respiratory muscles; the inspiratory and expiratory centers considered together. • The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by respiratory centers located in the brainstem. • This rhythm is modified in response to input from sensory receptors and from other regions of the brain.

    The Brainstem Respiratory Centers are a functionally-defined collection of anatomical loci within the brainstem that coordinate breathing through modulation of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles described in breathing biomechanics. Identify and describe the respiratory system The Brain The central information processing organ of the body The Spinal Cord Long, thin tubular bundle of nerves Connected to the brain . The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nerves Control voluntary muscles that provide movement. Autonomic Nerves Control involuntary responses. (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and organs) Special

    Merkulova, N.A., Mechanisms of Integrative Combination of Suprabulbar Structures with the Respiratory Center, in Sovremennye problemy fiziologii vegetativnykh funktsii (Current Problems in the Physiology of Autonomic Functions), Samara, 2001, p. 8. Find out how the respiratory center collects information from all over the body and then helps regulate your breathing. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional

    Carotid and aortic body are a cluster of chemoreceptors made of glomus cells (neuron like) that sense systemic changes in O2, CO2 and pH and secrete neurotransmitters to nearby neurons that send signals to the respiratory center in the medulla. • The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by respiratory centers located in the brainstem. • This rhythm is modified in response to input from sensory receptors and from other regions of the brain.

    Download as PDF. Respiratory and Pulmonary Physiology. Matthew D . Coleman MD, in Anesthesia Secrets (Fourth Edition), 2011. 25 Where is the respiration center located in the brain? The respiratory center is located bilaterally in the medulla and pons. Three major centers contribute to respiratory regulation. The dorsal respiratory center is mainly responsible for inspiration, the ventral Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course GuideBook By Rapid Learning Center . 2 Human Anatomy and Physiology Core Concept Table of Contents Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Tutorial Series Summary Core Unit #1 – Levels of Organization In this core unit, you will acquire the concepts of organization in the human body at the cellular, tissue …

    bronchi & arteries в†’ center capillaries ~ 7 Вµm diameter and are short в†’ large surface area (SA) the pulmonary bed receives the entire CO, excluding true shunt flow the mean pulmonary arterial pressure ~ 15 mmHg RBC's traverse the capillary bed in ~ 0.75 sec and traverse ~ 3 alveoli the bronchial circulation supplies down to the terminal bronchioles but only a small fraction of this blood Download as PDF. Respiratory and Pulmonary Physiology. Matthew D . Coleman MD, in Anesthesia Secrets (Fourth Edition), 2011. 25 Where is the respiration center located in the brain? The respiratory center is located bilaterally in the medulla and pons. Three major centers contribute to respiratory regulation. The dorsal respiratory center is mainly responsible for inspiration, the ventral

    Related to respiratory center: Dorsal respiratory group, pontine respiratory center res·pi·ra·to·ry cen·ter the region in the medulla oblongata concerned with integrating afferent information to determine the signals to the respiratory muscles; the inspiratory and expiratory centers considered together. The respiratory centers contain chemoreceptors that detect pH levels in the blood and send signals to the respiratory centers of the brain to adjust the ventilation rate to change acidity by increasing or decreasing the removal of carbon dioxide (since carbon dioxide is linked to …

    1 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Short Answer Figure 1.1 Using Figure 1.1, identify the following: 1 Human Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Series Course GuideBook By Rapid Learning Center

    3 “Fine-tuning” center 1. Pneumotaxic center • Neuronal input aiding in “turning off” inspiration 2. Apneustic center • Prevents inspiratory neurons from being “turned Download as PDF. Respiratory and Pulmonary Physiology. Matthew D . Coleman MD, in Anesthesia Secrets (Fourth Edition), 2011. 25 Where is the respiration center located in the brain? The respiratory center is located bilaterally in the medulla and pons. Three major centers contribute to respiratory regulation. The dorsal respiratory center is mainly responsible for inspiration, the ventral

    Human respiratory system Control of breathing

    respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

    Regulation of Breathing Lane Community College. Identify and describe the respiratory system The Brain The central information processing organ of the body The Spinal Cord Long, thin tubular bundle of nerves Connected to the brain . The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nerves Control voluntary muscles that provide movement. Autonomic Nerves Control involuntary responses. (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and organs) Special, Respiration is controlled by these areas of the brain that stimulate the contraction of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles. These areas, collectively called respiratory centers, are summarized here: The medullary inspiratory center, located in the medulla oblongata, generates rhythmic nerve.

    Chapter 06 Respiration Respiratory System Hypoxia. The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System 1. Gathers information from both inside and outside the body - Sensory Function 2. Transmits information to the processing areas of the brain …, Respiration is controlled by these areas of the brain that stimulate the contraction of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles. These areas, collectively called respiratory centers, are summarized here: The medullary inspiratory center, located in the medulla oblongata, generates rhythmic nerve.

    Human respiratory system Control of breathing

    respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

    Control of Respiration CliffsNotes Study Guides Book. Abstract. Two patients are presented who had suffered episodes of ischaemia of the brain-stem, mainly affecting one side of the pons. In addition to the more usual neurological signs, these two patients had cardiac arrhythmia: one had a sinus arrhythmia, the other a wandering pacemaker. ATOTW 205 The effects of anaesthesia on respiratory function, 15/11/2010 Page 3 of 8! In addition, anaesthetics have two further undesirable effects on ventilation; firstly after a period of mechanical ventilation the threshold at which the PaCO.

    respiratory center in brain tetboo pdf

  • Peripheral and central control of breathing Questions and
  • Aha Anatomy Physiology Heart Respiratory Tract

  • Brain Function of the Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Mid-Brain, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Cerebellum, • cardiac center // adjusts rate and force of heart • vasomotor center // adjusts blood vessel diameter • respiratory centers // control rate and depth of breathing • reflex centers // coughing, sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, salivation, sweating, movements of tongue and head 3 “Fine-tuning” center 1. Pneumotaxic center • Neuronal input aiding in “turning off” inspiration 2. Apneustic center • Prevents inspiratory neurons from being “turned

    Chapter 11 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter Check-In Classifying the components of the peripheral and central nervous system Discovering the different regions of the brain and their functions 7 T HE H UMAN B ODY Students make a book about the human body that introduces them to a number of systems and organs in the body. The Body Book T he human body is …

    The rhythm of ventilation is also controlled by the "Respiratory Center" which is located largely in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem. This is part of the autonomic system and as such is not controlled voluntarily (one can increase or decrease breathing rate voluntarily, but that involves a different part of the brain). While resting, the respiratory center sends out action potentials The medullary respiratory center, which is also the primary respiratory center, receives numerous synaptic inputs from neurons in various areas of the brain particularly from the pons. The pontine respiratory centers/ nuclei modulate and fine-tune the medullary centers thereby stabilizing breathing by producing normal smooth inspirations and expirations.

    Pdf human brain 27,114 views. Share; Like; Download babyboy1 . Follow The Midbrain The midbrain is located below the center of the cerebrum. The midbrain forms the superior part of the brain stem. 52. The Midbrain The midbrain consists of centers that are concerned with aspects of vision and hearing. 53. The Pons Located anterior to the cerebellum. Lies between the midbrain and the Abstract. Adrenaline regulates respiratory network, however, adrenergic contribution to the developing respiratory center has not well studied. Adrenaline application on embryonic day 17 medulla–spinal cord block preparations abolished non-respiratory activity and enhanced respiratory frequency.

    Chapter 11 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter Check-In Classifying the components of the peripheral and central nervous system Discovering the different regions of the brain and their functions Find out how the respiratory center collects information from all over the body and then helps regulate your breathing. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional

    Find out how the respiratory center collects information from all over the body and then helps regulate your breathing. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional Abstract. Two patients are presented who had suffered episodes of ischaemia of the brain-stem, mainly affecting one side of the pons. In addition to the more usual neurological signs, these two patients had cardiac arrhythmia: one had a sinus arrhythmia, the other a wandering pacemaker.

    The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System 1. Gathers information from both inside and outside the body - Sensory Function 2. Transmits information to the processing areas of the brain … Kazuhisa Ezure, in Progress in Brain Research, 2004. 4. In vivo studies reveal network properties Respiratory neurons that fire during the inspiratory (I) phase of breathing are called I neurons, whereas those that fire during the expiratory (E) phase are termed E neurons.

    The Brainstem Respiratory Centers are a functionally-defined collection of anatomical loci within the brainstem that coordinate breathing through modulation of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles described in breathing biomechanics. Human respiratory system - Control of breathing: Breathing is an automatic and rhythmic act produced by networks of neurons in the hindbrain (the pons and medulla). The neural networks direct muscles that form the walls of the thorax and abdomen and produce pressure gradients that move air into and out of the lungs. The respiratory rhythm and

    This Book Belongs to: Name Grade Teacher 2020 Peachtree Road NW Atlanta, GA 30309 shepherd.org Brain and Spinal Cord Injury: Anatomy, Careers, and Injury Prevention shepherd.org Student Workbook 01/14 BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD INJURY. Developed by the Injury Prevention Program at Shepherd Center in collaboration with Cobb County (Ga.) Public Schools. Brought to you by our … The Respiratory System Overview • Functions of the Respiratory • Respiratory Physiology System – Pulmonary ventilation

    This Book Belongs to: Name Grade Teacher 2020 Peachtree Road NW Atlanta, GA 30309 shepherd.org Brain and Spinal Cord Injury: Anatomy, Careers, and Injury Prevention shepherd.org Student Workbook 01/14 BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD INJURY. Developed by the Injury Prevention Program at Shepherd Center in collaboration with Cobb County (Ga.) Public Schools. Brought to you by our … Merkulova, N.A., Mechanisms of Integrative Combination of Suprabulbar Structures with the Respiratory Center, in Sovremennye problemy fiziologii vegetativnykh funktsii (Current Problems in the Physiology of Autonomic Functions), Samara, 2001, p. 8.

    Pdf human brain 27,114 views. Share; Like; Download babyboy1 . Follow The Midbrain The midbrain is located below the center of the cerebrum. The midbrain forms the superior part of the brain stem. 52. The Midbrain The midbrain consists of centers that are concerned with aspects of vision and hearing. 53. The Pons Located anterior to the cerebellum. Lies between the midbrain and the Carotid and aortic body are a cluster of chemoreceptors made of glomus cells (neuron like) that sense systemic changes in O2, CO2 and pH and secrete neurotransmitters to nearby neurons that send signals to the respiratory center in the medulla.

    Human respiratory system - Control of breathing: Breathing is an automatic and rhythmic act produced by networks of neurons in the hindbrain (the pons and medulla). The neural networks direct muscles that form the walls of the thorax and abdomen and produce pressure gradients that move air into and out of the lungs. The respiratory rhythm and At rest, the respiratory system performs its functions at a constant, rhythmic pace, as regulated by the respiratory centers of the brain. At this pace, ventilation provides sufficient oxygen to …

    7 T HE H UMAN B ODY Students make a book about the human body that introduces them to a number of systems and organs in the body. The Body Book T he human body is … Anatomy Of The Respiratory System The respiratory system (also referred to as the ventilator system) is a complex biological system comprised of several organs that facilitate the inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in living organisms (or, in other words, breathing).

    centers in the brain control. Because the brain is the controlling center for Because the brain is the controlling center for other vital organ systems, brain dysfunction, such as that which may develop Anatomy Of The Respiratory System The respiratory system (also referred to as the ventilator system) is a complex biological system comprised of several organs that facilitate the inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in living organisms (or, in other words, breathing).